10 Best Chrome Extensions That Are Perfect for Everyone

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Are you a great Chrome user? That’s nice to hear. But first, consider whether or not there are any essential Chrome extensions you are currently missing from your browsing life, so here we're going to share with you10 Best Chrome Extensions That Are Perfect for Everyone

Are you a great Chrome user? That’s nice to hear. But first, consider whether or not there are any essential Chrome extensions you are currently missing from your browsing life, so here we're going to share with you 10 Best Chrome Extensions That Are Perfect for Everyone. So Let's Start.

1. LastPass

When you have too several passwords to remember, LastPass remembers them for you.

This chrome extension is an easy way to save you time and increase security. It’s a single password manager that will log you into all of your accounts. you simply ought to bear in mind one word: your LastPass password to log in to all or any your accounts.


  • Save usernames and passwords and LastPasswill  log you  in  automatically.
  • Fill the forms quickly to save your addresses, credit card numbers and more.

2. MozBar

MozBar is an SEO toolbar extension that makes it easy for you to analyze your web pages' SEO while you surf. You can customize your search so that you see data for a particular region or for all regions. You get data such as website and domain authority and link profile. The status column tells you whether there are any no-followed links to the page.You can also compare link metrics. There is a pro version of MozBar, too.

3. Grammerly

Grammarly is a real-time grammar checking and spelling  tool for online writing. It checks spelling, grammar, and punctuation as you type, and has a dictionary feature that suggests related words. if you use mobile phones for writing than  Grammerly also have a mobile keyboard app.

4. VidlQ

VidIQ is a SaaS product and Chrome Extension that makes it easier to manage and optimize your YouTube channels. It keeps you informed about your channel's performance with real-time analytics and powerful insights.


  • Learn more about insights and statistics beyond YouTube Analytics
  • Find great videos with the Trending tab.
  • You can check out any video’s YouTube rankings and see how your own video is doing on the charts.
  • Keep track  the  history of the keyword to determine when a keyword is rising or down  in popularity over time.
  • Quickly find out which videos are performing the best on YouTube right now.
  • Let this tool suggest keywords for you to use in your title, description and tags.

5. ColorZilla

ColorZilla is a browser extension that allows you to find out the exact color of any object in your web browser. This is especially useful when you want to match elements on your page to the color of an image.


  •  Advanced Color Picker (similar to Photoshop's)
  • Ultimate CSS Gradient Generator
  • The "Webpage Color Analyzer" site helps you determine the palette of colors used in a particular website.
  • Palette Viewer with 7 pre-installed palettes
  • Eyedropper - sample the color of any pixel on the page
  • Color History of recently picked colors
  • Displays some info about the element, including the tag name, class, id and size.
  • Auto copy picked colors to clipboard
  • Get colors of dynamic hover elements 
  • Pick colors from Flash objects
  • Pick colors at any zoom level

6. Honey

Honey is a chrome extension with which you  save each product from the website and notify it when it is available at  low price it's one among the highest extensions for Chrome that finds coupon codes whenever you look online.


  • Best for finding exclusive prices on Amazon.
  • A free reward program called Honey Gold.
  • Searches and filters the simplest value fitting your demand.
  • Instant notifications.

7. GMass: Powerful Chrome Extension for Gmail Marketers

GMass (or Gmail Mass) permits users to compose and send mass emails using Gmail. it is a great tool as a result of you'll use it as a replacement for a third-party email sending platform. you will love GMass to spice up your emailing functionality on the platform.

8. Notion Web Clipper: Chrome Extension for Geeks

It's a Chrome extension for geeks that enables you to highlight and save what you see on the web.

It's been designed by Notion, that could be a Google space different that helps groups craft higher ideas and collaborate effectively.


  • Save anything online with just one click  
  • Use it on any device
  • Organize your saved clips quickly
  • Tag, share and comment on the clips

If you are someone who works online, you need to surf the internet to get your business done. And often there is no time to read or analyze something. But it's important that you  do it. Notion Web Clipper will help you with that.

9. WhatFont: Chrome Extension for identifying Any Site Fonts

WhatFont is a Chrome extension that allows web designers to easily identify and compare different fonts on a page. The first time you use it on any page, WhatFont will copy the selected page.It  Uses this page to find out what fonts are present and generate an image that shows all those fonts in different sizes. Besides the apparent websites like Google or Amazon,  you'll conjointly use it on sites wherever embedded fonts ar used. 

10. SimilarWeb: Traffic Rank & Website Analysis Extension

Similar Web is an SEO add on for both Chrome and Firefox.It allows you  to check web site traffic and key metrics for any web site, as well as engagement rate, traffic ranking, keyword ranking, and traffic source. this is often a good tool if you are looking to seek out new and effective SEO ways similarly as analyze trends across the web.


  • Discover keyword trends
  • Know fresh keywords
  • Get benefit from the real traffic insights
  • Analyze engagement metrics
  • Explore unique visitors data
  • Analyze your industry's category
  • Use month to date data

How to Install chrome Extension in Android

I know everyone knows how to install extension in pc but most of people don't know how to install it in android phone so i will show you how to install it in android

1. Download Kiwi browser from Play Store and then Open it.


Continue reading below

 2. Tap the three dots at the top right corner and select Extension. 

3. Click on (+From Store) to access chrome web store or simple search chrome web store and access it.

4. Once you found an extension click on add to chrome a message will pop-up  asking if you wish to confirm your choice. Hit OK to install the extension in the Kiwi browser.

5. To manage  extensions on the browser, tap the three dots in the upper right corner. Then select Extensions to access a catalog of installed extensions that you can disable, update or remove with just a few clicks.

Your Chrome extensions should install on Android, but there’s no guarantee all of them will work. Because Google Chrome Extensions are not optimized for Android devices.

Final Saying

We hope this list of 10 best chrome extensions that is perfect for everyone will help you in picking the right Chrome Extensions. We have selected the extensions after matching their features to the needs of different categories of people. Also which extension you like the most let me know in the comment section

Source: 10 Best Chrome Extensions That Are Perfect for Everyone

Most Frequently Asked Questions About Email Marketing

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1. Why is email marketing important?

Email is the marketing tool that helps you  create a seamless, connected, frictionless buyer journey. More importantly, email marketing allows you to build relationships with prospects, customers, and past customers. It's your chance to speak  to them right in their inbox, at a time that suits them. Along with the right message, email can become one of your most powerful marketing channels.

2. What is benefits of email marketing?

Email marketing is best way for creating long term relationship with your clients, and increasing sales in our company.
Benefits of email marketing for bussiness:
  • Better brand recognition
  • Statistics of what works best
  • More sales
  • Targeted audience
  • More traffic to your products/services/newsletter
  • Build credibility
Most  bussinesses are using email marketing and making tons of money with email marketing.

3. What is the simplest day and time to send my marketing emails?

Again, the answer to this question varies from company to company. And again, testing is the way to find out what works best. Typically, weekends and mornings seem to be  times when multiple emails are opened, but since your audience may have different habits, it's best to experiment and then use your  data to decide.

 4. Which metrics should I be looking at?

The two most important metrics for email marketing are  open rate and click-through rate. If your emails aren't opened, subscribers will never see your full marketing message, and if they open them but don't click through to your site, your emails won't convert.

5. How do I write a decent subject line?

The best subject lines are short and to the point, accurately describing  the content of the email, but also catchy and intriguing, so the reader wants to know more. Once Again, this is the perfect place for  A/B testing, to see what types of subject lines work best with your audience. Your call to action should be clear and  simple. It should be somewhere at the top of your email for those who haven't finished reading the entire email,  then repeated  at the end for those reading all the way through. It should state exactly what you want subscribers to do, for example "Click here to download the premium theme for free.

6. Is email marketing still effective?

Email marketing is one of the most effective ways for a business to reach its customers directly. Think about it. You don't post something on your site  hoping people will visit it. You don't even post something on a social media page and hope fans  see it. You're sending something straight to each person's inbox, where they'll definitely  see it! Even if they don't open it, they'll still see your subject line and business name every time you send an email, so you're still communicating directly with your audience.

7. However do I grow my email subscribers list? Should i buy an email list or build it myself?

Buying an email list is  waste of time & money. These email accounts are unverified and not interested in your brand. The mailing list is useless if your subscribers do not open your emails. There are different ways to grow your mailing list. 
Give them a free ebook and host it on a landing page where they have to enter the email to download the file and also create a forum page on your website, asks your visitors what questions they might have about your business, and collects email addresses to follow up with them.

8. How do I prevent audience from unsubscribing?

If the  subject line of the email is irrelevant to  customers, they will ignore it multiple times. But, if it keeps repeating, they are intercepted and unsubscribed from your emails. So, send relevant emails for the benefit of the customer. Don't send emails that often only focus  on sales, offers and discounts. 
Submit information about your business and offers so you can connect with customers. You can also update them on recent trends in your industry. The basic role of an email is first and foremost to  connect with customers, get the most out of this tool.

9. What is the difference between a cold email and a spam email?

Cold emails are mostly sales emails that are sent with content align to the needs of the recipient. It is usually personalized and includes a business perspective. However, it is still an unsolicited email. And all unsolicited emails are marked as SPAM. 
Regularly receiving this type of unsolicited email in your users' inboxes, chances are  your emails will soon be diverted to  spam or junk folders. The most important thing to prevent this from happening is to respect your recipients' choice to opt-out of receiving emails from you. You can add the links to easily unsubscribe. You must be familiar with the CAN-SPAM Act and its regulations.

10. Where can I find email template?

Almost all email campaign tools provide you with ready-made templates. Whether you use MailChimp or Pardot, you'll get several email templates ready to use.
 However, if you want to create a template from scratch, you can do so.Most of email campaign tools have option to paste the HTML code of your own design. 

11. What email marketing trend will help marketers succeed in 2022?

Is it a trend to listen to  and get to know your customers? I think people realize how bad it feels for a brand or a company to obsess over themselves without knowing their customers personal needs. People who listen empathetically and then provide value based on what they learn will win.

Final Saying

 You can approach email marketing in different ways. We have compiled a list of most frequently asked questions to help you understand how to get started, what constraints you need to keep in mind, and what future development you will need, we don’t have 100% answers to every situation and there’s always a chance you will have something new and different to deal with as you market your own business. 

Source: Most Frequently Asked Questions About Email Marketing

7 Free Websites Every Content Creator Needs to Know

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Do you have the desire to become a content creator, but not have the money to start? Here are 7 free websites every content creator needs to know.

1.Exploding Topics (Trending Topics)

Exploding Topics
(Photo Credit:- Exploding Topics)

Building technological tools for nuclear disarmament

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Mentorship has played a central role in the twists and turns of Associate Professor Areg Danagoulian’s life.

As a boy, it led him first to mathematics, where a passionate teacher and mentorship from his parents instilled in him a love for the subject. He then followed in the footsteps of his physicist parents and became a physicist himself. During his career, mentorship has helped Danagoulian follow his research interests, from basic to applied nuclear physics and then to industry. More recently, Danagoulian returned to his alma mater, MIT, where he delights in guiding the students in his lab as they become mature scientists.

Joining the Institute’s faculty in 2014 was the latest phase change in a career full of shifting research interests. In that time Danagoulian, who was awarded tenure last year, has developed new technologies for detecting nuclear warhead materials, encrypting their technical details, and verifying their dismantlement.

On the edge of a breakthrough

Danagoulian could not believe his eyes. It was the beginning of 2020, and his lab had just finished running preliminary experiments with collaborators at Princeton University on a new, portable system for detecting fissionable material that could be used in nuclear warheads. The plan had been to gather baseline data and to optimize conditions from there. But as he looked at the early results, he noticed a small but unmistakable blip exactly where one would be if the system were already working.

“The dip was barely visible, but I realized it wasn’t just my eyes,” Danagoulian says. “We had this suboptimal setup and we already had a weak — but real — signal. That really motivated us. We got super excited.”

If the system could work with high enough accuracy, it could transform nuclear disarmament treaties between superpowers. In the past, such treaties have targeted the delivery systems (e.g. missiles and bomber aircraft) of the nuclear weapons rather than the weapons themselves, in part because the technology for verifying nuclear materials was not compact or sensitive enough to be used at nuclear sites. Danagoulian and his collaborators believed they were on the precipice of developing a technology that could change that.

Then the Covid-19 pandemic began. Danagoulian’s lab was temporarily closed, as was the lab at Princeton.

“We’re looking at this plot, and we’re thinking there is a gold mine waiting for us,” Danagoulian says.

After months of analyzing data and planning further experiments, Danagoulian’s lab reopened in June of last year with safety precautions in place.

“We were itching for action. The moment the doors opened, we ran into the lab,” Danagoulian recalls. “We started gathering data — and this time it was really high-quality data due to optimized experimental conditions — and suddenly all these peaks started showing up exactly where they were supposed to. It was this very rewarding thing, this sense of triumph, to do something that had never been done before on such a small scale.”

Since then, Danagoulian has been working with national labs as well as members of the policy community to raise awareness of the technology and learn more about how it could be implemented.

Danagoulian says being at MIT has further exposed him to the field of public policy, helping him build impactful technical solutions and leading to collaborations. He has also developed a related tool for hiding the design details of nuclear warheads during the verification process. That system uses a physics-based analog to common digital encryption methods to scramble data about the weapon’s design. The system addresses another major hurdle to nuclear dismantlement by allowing the international community to inspect a country’s nuclear sites without jeopardizing military secrets.

“Verification of nuclear disarmament is very important, because a treaty without verification is worse than no treaty at all,” Danagoulian says, citing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty that was proposed in the 1950s but not fully adopted until 1996, in part because scientists lacked the technology to reliably differentiate underground testing from seismic events.

Supporting others

Amid the multidisciplinary culture of MIT, Danagoulian decided to merge his scientific work with politics. But for his parents, who were both physicists under the Soviet Union (in modern-day Armenia), science and social issues were inseparable.

“In Soviet Armenia, being in a scientist family made you a cultural minority, and it would inevitably become part of your identity,” Danagoulian says. “Here it’s a job, not a social class. But we saw ourselves as a cultural group or a political class. Later, the independence movement in Armenia was largely led by intellectuals and scientists.”

Danagoulian’s family moved to the United States when he was 16. His parents had tough lives as physicists, and while they fostered his love for the sciences, they also encouraged their son to be a computer scientist, which they thought would bring more prosperity and job security. But Danagoulian had discovered a love for physics while preparing for college, and he decided to ignore their pleas. He went on to major in physics at MIT, where he got the chance to work with Professor Richard Milner in the Laboratory of Nuclear Science as part of the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP).

Danagoulian completed his PhD work in nuclear physics at the University of Illinois and became a researcher at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.  There, he became increasingly interested in applied science and decided to join a Boston-based company developing a cargo scanner for detecting nuclear materials at ports and border crossings around the world.

At sufficiently high energies, photons can pass through even dense structures like steel shipping containers. While working in industry, Danagoulian was trying to develop a system that would send a beam of photons into containers and scan for the subatomic particles that result from collisions with nuclear materials.

Danagoulian and collaborators developed and commercialized the system, which was deployed in the South Boston Container Terminal for two years before being abandoned during the Covid-19 pandemic, largely because of its high price tag. Danagoulian believes it was the first such system deployed in the world and considers it a major technical success. He believes it could be deployed quickly again if needed in a crisis involving nuclear terrorism.

In 2014, Danagoulian returned to MIT to join the faculty of the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.

This department is very collaborative,” Danagoulian says. “Everyone is trying to help you any way they can. It’s a very supportive department, and I think my success is very much associated with the mentorship and advice I’ve gotten.”

Danagoulian has also embraced his role teaching and advising students, although he admits he had to learn to let students handle the research and experiments themselves.

“When I finally got the discipline to let go, it was very rewarding, because I started seeing my students get better, and I started seeing their work becoming better than my own work in that particular area. That was deeply gratifying,” Danagoulian says.

These days, Danagoulian is happy to be in a position to offer the support and guidance that’s played such a central role in his life.

“Most of my choices in life, when it comes to education, research, work, have been heavily influenced by mentorship,” he says. “Mentorship is critically important for shaping you, helping you pick a direction, and encouraging you. I try to help students understand they are capable of doing great things.”

Source: Building technological tools for nuclear disarmament

Top 9 Free AI Tools That Make Your Life Easier

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Photo:- Copy.ai

First one on the list is copy.ai. It is an AI based copy writer tool. Basically  what a copywriter tool does is, it gives you content that you can post on your blog or video  when you give it a few descriptions about the topic you want content on.So copy ai can help you write instagram captions gives you blog idea, product descriptions,  facebook content, startup ideas, viral ideas, a lot of things it can do, you just make an account  in this website, then select a tool and fill in the necessary description and the AI will generate  content on what you ask for.

For tutorials go to their official Youtube  channel .An awesome tool that is going to be really handy in the future.

Hotpot.ai offers a collection of  AI tools for designers, as well as for anyone, it has an “AI picture restorer” which removes  scratches ,and basically restores your old photo into amazing pictures and makes it look brand new. 

 Ai picture colorizer , turns your black and white photo into color. And there is a background  remover tool, picture enlarger and a lot more for designers, check it out,and explore all the tools.

Deep-nostalgia became  very popular on the internet when people started 

making reaction videos of their parents reacting  to animated pictures of their grandparents. So deep - nostalgia is a very cool app, that will  animate any photo of a person.

 So what makes it really cool is that fact that you can upload an  old photo of your family and see them animate and living. Which is pretty cool and creepy at  the same time if they are dead already.. Really amazing service from myheritage, I created a  lot of cool animations with my old photos as well as with the photos of my grandparents.

Having a nice  looking profile picture is really important if you want that professional feel in your socials.  Whether in linkedin or twitter having a 

distinct and catchy profile picture can make  all the difference. So that's where pfpmaker comes in. it a free online tool to create amazing professional profile pictures that fits you. It generates a lot of profile pictures  and you can also make small changes to already created profile pictures if you want to,as well.

Seeing into the future: Personalized cancer screening with artificial intelligence

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While mammograms are currently the gold standard in breast cancer screening, swirls of controversy exist regarding when and how often they should be administered. On the one hand, advocates argue for the ability to save lives: Women aged 60-69 who receive mammograms, for example, have a 33 percent lower risk of dying compared to those who don’t get mammograms. Meanwhile, others argue about costly and potentially traumatic false positives: A meta-analysis of three randomized trials found a 19 percent over-diagnosis rate from mammography.

Even with some saved lives, and some overtreatment and overscreening, current guidelines are still a catch-all: Women aged 45 to 54 should get mammograms every year. While personalized screening has long been thought of as the answer, tools that can leverage the troves of data to do this lag behind. 

This led scientists from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and Jameel Clinic for Machine Learning and Health to ask: Can we use machine learning to provide personalized screening? 

Out of this came Tempo, a technology for creating risk-based screening guidelines. Using an AI-based risk model that looks at who was screened and when they got diagnosed, Tempo will recommend a patient return for a mammogram at a specific time point in the future, like six months or three years. The same Tempo policy can be easily adapted to a wide range of possible screening preferences, which would let clinicians pick their desired early-detection-to-screening-cost trade-off, without training new policies. 

The model was trained on a large screening mammography dataset from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and was tested on held-out patients from MGH as well as external datasets from Emory, Karolinska Sweden, and Chang Gung Memorial hospitals. Using the team’s previously developed risk-assessment algorithm Mirai, Tempo obtained better early detection than annual screening while requiring 25 percent fewer mammograms overall at Karolinska. At MGH, it recommended roughly a mammogram a year, and obtained a simulated early detection benefit of roughly four-and-a-half months better. 

“By tailoring the screening to the patient's individual risk, we can improve patient outcomes, reduce overtreatment, and eliminate health disparities,” says Adam Yala, a PhD student in electrical engineering and computer science, MIT CSAIL affiliate, and lead researcher on a paper describing Tempo published Jan. 13 in Nature Medicine. “Given the massive scale of breast cancer screening, with tens of millions of women getting mammograms every year, improvements to our guidelines are immensely important.”

Early uses of AI in medicine stem back to the 1960s, where many refer to the Dendral experiments as kicking off the field. Researchers created a software system that was considered the first expert kind that automated the decision-making and problem-solving behavior of organic chemists. Sixty years later, deep medicine has greatly evolved drug diagnostics, predictive medicine, and patient care. 

“Current guidelines divide the population into a few large groups, like younger or older than 55, and recommend the same screening frequency to all the members of a cohort. The development of AI-based risk models that operate over raw patient data give us an opportunity to transform screening, giving more frequent screens to those who need it and sparing the rest,” says Yala. “A key aspect of these models is that their predictions can evolve over time as a patient’s raw data changes, suggesting that screening policies need to be attuned to changes in risk and be optimized over long periods of patient data.” 

Tempo uses reinforcement learning, a machine learning method widely known for success in games like Chess and Go, to develop a “policy” that predicts a followup recommendation for each patient. 

The training data here only had information about a patient’s risk at the time points when their mammogram was taken (when they were 50, or 55, for example). The team needed the risk assessment at intermediate points, so they designed their algorithm to learn a patient’s risk at unobserved time points from their observed screenings, which evolved as new mammograms of the patient became available. 

The team first trained a neural network to predict future risk assessments given previous ones. This model then estimates patient risk at unobserved time points, and it enables simulation of the risk-based screening policies. Next, they trained that policy, (also a neural network), to maximize the reward (for example, the combination of early detection and screening cost) to the retrospective training set. Eventually, you’d get a recommendation for when to return for the next screen, ranging from six months to three years in the future, in multiples of six months — the standard is only one or two years. 

Let’s say Patient A comes in for their first mammogram, and eventually gets diagnosed at Year Four. In Year Two, there’s nothing, so they don’t come back for another two years, but then at Year Four they get a diagnosis. Now there's been two years of gap between the last screen, where a tumor could have grown. 

Using Tempo, at that first mammogram, Year Zero, the recommendation might have been to come back in two years. And then at Year Two, it might have seen that risk is high, and recommended that the patient come back in six months, and in the best case, it would be detectable. The model is dynamically changing the patient’s screening frequency, based on how the risk profile is changing.

Tempo uses a simple metric for early detection, which assumes that cancer can be caught up to 18 months in advance. While Tempo outperformed current guidelines across different settings of this assumption (six months, 12 months), none of these assumptions are perfect, as the early detection potential of a tumor depends on that tumor's characteristics. The team suggested that follow-up work using tumor growth models could address this issue. 

Also, the screening-cost metric, which counts the total screening volume recommended by Tempo, doesn't provide a full analysis of the entire future cost because it does not explicitly quantify false positive risks or additional screening harms. 

There are many future directions that can further improve personalized screening algorithms. The team says one avenue would be to build on the metrics used to estimate early detection and screening costs from retrospective data, which would result in more refined guidelines. Tempo could also be adapted to include different types of screening recommendations, such as leveraging MRI or mammograms, and future work could separately model the costs and benefits of each. With better screening policies, recalculating the earliest and latest age that screening is still cost-effective for a patient might be feasible. 

“Our framework is flexible and can be readily utilized for other diseases, other forms of risk models, and other definitions of early detection benefit or screening cost. We expect the utility of Tempo to continue to improve as risk models and outcome metrics are further refined. We're excited to work with hospital partners to prospectively study this technology and help us further improve personalized cancer screening,” says Yala. 

Yala wrote the paper on Tempo alongside MIT PhD student Peter G. Mikhael, Fredrik Strand of Karolinska University Hospital, Gigin Lin of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yung-Liang Wan of Chang Gung University, Siddharth Satuluru of Emory University, Thomas Kim of Georgia Tech, Hari Trivedi of Emory University, Imon Banerjee of the Mayo Clinic, Judy Gichoya of the Emory University School of Medicine, Kevin Hughes of MGH, Constance Lehman of MGH, and senior author and MIT Professor Regina Barzilay.

The research is supported by grants from Susan G. Komen, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Quanta Computing, an Anonymous Foundation, the MIT Jameel-Clinic, Chang Gung Medical Foundation Grant, and by Stockholm Läns Landsting HMT Grant. 

Source: Seeing into the future: Personalized cancer screening with artificial intelligence

Merging design, tech, and cognitive science

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Ibuki Iwasaki came to MIT without a clear idea of what she wanted to major in, but that changed during the spring of her first year, when she left her comfort zone and enrolled in 4.02A (Introduction to Design). For the final project, her group had to make a modular structure out of foam blocks, producing a design with both two-dimensional and three-dimensional components.

The team ended up shaping 72 unique cubes, with each block’s pattern and placement carefully planned so that when assembled, they formed a structure with an unassuming facade but an intricate tunnel-like interior.

The experience taught Iwasaki she was more creative than she had realized, and that she loved the progression of the design process, from ideation to fabrication.

It also introduced her to the role that technology can play in design, whether through coding, processing components to analyze how they might fit with each other, or using programs to assess functionality or success of a model. She became excited to explore how design and technology work together.

Now a senior, Iwasaki double majors in art and design, in the Department of Architecture, and in computation and cognition, in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, finding creative ways to develop technology that prioritizes individuals and how they think. She believes that considering the person who uses the technology is fundamental to the design.

In her first year, Iwasaki joined Concourse, a first-year learning community that integrates humanities-related and STEM-focused classes. Later, she also joined the Burchard Scholars Program, a series of dinners with professors from the School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, to learn more about the humanities experience at MIT. “Even though I was initially afraid that by choosing MIT I was choosing STEM over humanities, that was not the case,” she says.

“Design most definitely involves aspects of both humanities and STEM,” she adds.

Further experience with the technological side of design came in the summer of Iwasaki’s sophomore year, in an experiential ethics class. Tasked with looking at the visual design of social media and its effects on the user, she considered how the layout of the app was shaped by how someone might interact with the platform. For example, she looked at how an “infinite scroll” plays into rewarding behavior, which triggers a dopamine response.

“I realized cognition and human behavior factor into a lot of things, especially design,” she says.

The class sparked Iwasaki’s interest in human-centered design, leading her to look more closely at the way an individual interacts with technology. In January of 2020, she pursued her first design-related undergraduate research opportunity (UROP) through the Urban Risk Lab, which designs technology for natural disasters. Iwasaki focused on a project involving a platform that allows citizens affected by natural disasters, as well as emergency responders, to communicate information with each other in real time.

She helped design the interface of the program, considering what layout might be easiest for users to interact with. She also worked on a machine-learning component, which analyzed reports from specific areas and processing them in a way that was easy for users to understand, ultimately giving emergency responders more time to react. And she was able to sit in on workshops with Japanese emergency responders, even helping to translate their reports via Zoom. The experience was eye-opening for Iwasaki, underscoring how important the individual user is in determining how the technology is implemented.

While Iwasaki had long been intrigued by the aesthetic side of design, the ethics class and the following research project led to a new interest in functionality and a desire to learn more about cognition and behavior to better inform her designs. One of the first classes she took in this area was 9.85 (Early Childhood Cognition and Development), to explore the way young individuals think. And in the summer of 2020, Iwasaki started working in Professor Laura Schulz’s Early Childhood Cognition Lab.

Running studies over Zoom, Iwasaki read stories to children and analyzed their responses to specific questions and scenarios. She was particularly interested in studying “loophole behavior.” For example, if a parent tells their child they don’t want anything on the floor, the child, instead of picking up their belongings, might pile them on their bed, so there is technically nothing on the floor. Applying these insights to technology, Iwasaki sees loophole behavior as a way to craft accurate algorithms for information processing.

“Understanding loophole behavior in children can lead to an understanding of how computers find loopholes in code,” she says.

Working with children and studying how they learn also largely influenced Iwasaki’s senior thesis topic, where she is looking at how technology is used for education purposes, focusing on augmented reality and how it can be better implemented to enhance learning. She understands that technology has great potential for use in service of education, though there is much work to be done.

Iwasaki is also committed to helping other students navigate their MIT experience, as she is an associate advisor to first-year students through MIT’s Office of the First Year. She sees the role as an opportunity to connect with fellow undergrads and help them explore their interests. More recently, she became an associate advisor specifically for design majors, under the professor she had for 4.02A in her first year. “It’s been very rewarding for me to share my experiences and help guide first-years,” she says.

Looking ahead, Iwasaki hopes to continue studying cognition and its applications to technology and design. Specifically, she wants to look closer at her thesis topic focusing on education, using her background in cognition to inform future designs for more effective learning platforms.

“Although it sometimes felt strange to go from making a chair in one class to analyzing nematode neurons in another, I feel fortunate to have gotten the opportunity to explore both worlds, and also being able to bridge them through studying learning and designing for education,” she says.

Source: Merging design, tech, and cognitive science

A look at how countries go nuclear — and why some do not

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In 1993, South Africa announced to a largely surprised world that it had built nuclear weapons in the 1980s, before dismantling its arsenal. For the first time, a country outside of the elite world powers had obtained nuclear capabilities while keeping matters a secret from almost everyone else.

To this day, South Africa remains the only country to have pulled off that exact trick. Other countries have gone nuclear in other ways. A half-dozen countries with more economic and political clout than South Africa have built weapons on their own timetables. Three other countries — Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea — have developed nuclear weapons while being supported by larger allies. And many wealthy countries, including Australia, Brazil, Germany, Japan, and South Korea, have chosen not to pursue weapons programs.

Recognizing these different paths to proliferation is an essential part of arms control: Grasping how one country is pursuing nuclear weapons can help other countries constrain that pursuit.

“There’s meaningful variation in how states have thought about pursuing nuclear weapons,” says says Vipin Narang, an MIT political scientist and expert on nuclear strategy. “It changes how we think about stopping them. It changes how we think about managing them. It’s an important question.”

Narang believes that too often, we imagine that all countries pursue nuclear weapons the way the U.S. and Soviet Union did during and after World War II — a swift race culminating in the rapid buildup of arsenals, leaving little room for intervention. But that paradigm applies to almost no other country.  

“We think of proliferators as a stylized Manhattan Project,” says Narang, the Frank Stanton professor of Nucear Security and Political Science at MIT. “But the U.S. and the Soviet Union are really the only ones who had Manhattan projects, and the rest of the nuclear weapons powers look different.”

Narang has detailed these differences in a new book, “Seeking the Bomb,” published today by Princeton University Press. In it, he develops a comprehensive typology of nuclear programs around the world; examines why countries take different routes to nuclear development; and outlines the policy implications.

“There is a growing likelihood that the United States will have to confront proliferation attempts from not just foes but friends and frenemies as well,” Narang writes in the book.

Sprinters and hedgers

In recent decades, scholarship has usually focused on why countries acquire nuclear weapons — with the leading answers being security, prestige, and domestic political dynamics. But Narang’s book centers the question of how, not why, countries seek to become nuclear-equipped.

“No one had asked how states pursue nuclear weapons, and examined the different ways they have to deal with nonproliferation [agreements], their own resource constraints, domestic politics, and states trying to stop them,” Narang says.

At least 29 countries have made efforts to become nuclear; 19 have specifically tried to develop nuclear bombs, and 10 have succeeded. Narang’s book puts all of them into four categories: countries he labels “sprinters,” “hedgers,” those benefitting from “sheltered pursuit,” and “hiders.”

The “sprinters,” the simplest category to understand, consist of the U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, China, and India — big countries that could develop nuclear weapons independently, and did.

Then there are “hedgers,” the countries that have potential to develop nuclear weapons but hold off doing so, because of geopolitical considerations or a lack of domestic political support. Germany, Japan, and South Korea are U.S. allies who are not eager to make themselves targets for nuclear-armed states, and instead work with the U.S. on defense matters. Should U.S. support waver, those countries might be more likely to pursue their own programs. 

“Seeking the Bomb” actually details three subcategories of hedging. Japan and Germany are “insurance hedgers,” wary of American abandonment. “Hard hedgers,” such as Sweden or Switzerland, are not as close to the U.S. but still decided not to pursue weapons acquisition. And “technical hedgers,” including Argentina and Brazil, have technological pieces in place for nuclear program but have not weaponized those capabilities.

“Hedging is very prominent across countries, including Japan, South Korea, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Iran,” Narang says. “It’s a really meaningful category that is written out of the proliferation literature because we all focus on states that get the bomb, and not the ones that don’t know if they want it yet. They put the pieces in place to exercise the option quickly if they decide to.”

By contrast, countries undertaking “sheltered pursuit” use their alliances with superpowers to develop nuclear weapons. Israel, for one, could finish building nuclear weapons in the 1960s partly because of tacit support from the U.S. By 2006, North Korea had built its own weapons with the partial support of China.

“North Korea wouldn’t have been able to get nuclear weapons without China giving it shelter,” Narang observes.

Hide and seek

Very few countries find themselves in the situation where a powerful ally will tacitly endorse their nuclear program, however. And if a country wants nuclear weapons but cannot get help from a superpower, it is most likely to work in secret. These are the “hiders,” in Narang’s typology.

“If you don’t have shelter, then your only option is to hide,” Narang says. “And hiding is a very risky strategy, as most get caught along the way — Libya, Iraq, Syria.”

In 2007, for instance, Israeli jets bombed a North Korea-designed nuclear reactor built in Syria, where President Bashar al-Assad had been pushing a nuclear program forward.

“No one thought Assad would try to hide a North Korean nuclear reactor above ground,” Narang says. “He came within weeks of the finish line.” Moreover, Narang adds of such leaders, “Often times the calculation is they’ll lose the program but not the regime,” Narang says. “Assad lost the reactor, but he’s still in power.” In other cases, such as Iraq and Libya, U.S. military action drove nuclear-minded leaders from power.

And yet, the case of South Africa indicates it is at least possible to push a covert nuclear program all the way through.

“South Africa is every hider’s inspiration,” Narang says.

At the time, the U.S. had suspected South Africa was engaged in a nuclear program, and then-South Africa President Pik Botha had told U.S. leaders in 1981 that the country had expanding nuclear “capacities.” But the U.S. had little concrete information about what was really happening.

“South Africa’s really the only hider that got out of the barn,” Narang says. “Neither the U.S. nor the Soviet Union wanted South Africa to get nuclear weapons, but because it was in the Southern Hemisphere, we didn’t have good eyes on the program, and [the country] was very good at hiding and obfuscating what its enrichment and plant capabilities were.”

So on the one hand, the South African case remains an anomaly. Still, “hiders” can be very dangerous to global stability.

“It’s most likely they create the risk of a crisis when they’re discovered and the great powers seek to end the program,” Narang says. “And if they succeed, precisely the states you least want to have nuclear weapons, have nuclear weapons. Either way a hider is disruptive. … It either ends poorly for them, or it ends poorly for us.”

The future: Nuclear arms management

“Seeking the Bomb” includes a model Narang built incorporating certain factors — technical capabilities, domestic politics, strategic considerations — that should lead countries into one category of weapons development or another. Narang found the model correctly predicts over 85 percent of the historical cases correctly. That could help policy experts and other analysts assess future nuclear threats.

“I think there are two categories that are going to be particularly prominent in coming decades,” Narang says. “In the Middle East, you’re going to have a contagion of hedgers.” At the same time, he says, “Hiders are getting smarter. … I don’t take it for granted that we’ll be able to stop all hiders indefinitely. These hedgers and hiders are going to be the most prominent categories in the future.”

Both “hedgers” and some “hiders” can be dealt with diplomatically, Narang observes, through means such as the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action [JCPOA] that limited Iran’s nuclear program but has now been dropped by the U.S.

“The JCPOA is rare because there are very few instruments and vehicles that have pushed states back from hiding to hard hedging,” Narang says. “For it to be torpedoed over domestic politics is just a tragedy. There’s no guarantee we’re going to get back to it.”

“Seeking the Bomb” has been praised by other political scientists. Caitlin Talmadge, an associate professor of security studies at Georgetown University, called it “an exceptional book, one of the most important to come out in the field in decades,” adding: “It will become the definitive work on its subject matter and be widely read by academic, policy, and general audiences.”

For his part, Narang emphasizes the fraught nature of today’s nuclear landscape. After a few decades trending toward disarmament, nuclear stockpiles are growing, and nuclear proliferation is less a problem that can be ended than an issue that needs astute management.

“Everybody wants a solution to the nuclear problem,” Narang says. “I think my conclusion, while pessimistic, is realistic. While nuclear technology exists, nuclear weapons are unlikely to go away. It’s not a problem to be solved, it’s a problem to be managed. I think for the next several decades we’ll be dealing with these problems.”

Source: A look at how countries go nuclear — and why some do not

Courtney Lesoon and Elizabeth Yarina win Fulbright-Hays Scholarships

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Two MIT doctoral students in the MIT School of Architecture and Planning have received the prestigious Fulbright-Hays Scholarship for Doctoral Dissertation Research Award. Courtney Lesoon and Elizabeth "Lizzie" Yarina are the first awardees from MIT in more than a decade.

The fellowship provides opportunities for doctoral students to engage in full-time dissertation research abroad. The program, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is designed to contribute to the development and improvement of the study of modern foreign languages and area studies. Applicants anticipate pursuing a teaching career in the United States following completion of their dissertation. There were 138 individuals from 47 institutions named scholars for the 2021 cycle.

Courtney Lesoon

Lesoon is a doctoral candidate in the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture, in the History, Theory and Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture. Lesoon earned her BA from College of the Holy Cross and was a 2012-13 Fulbright U.S. Student grantee to the United Arab Emirates, where her research concerned contemporary art and emerging cultural institutions. Her dissertation is titled “Spatializing Ahl al-ʿIlm: Learning and the Rise of the Early Islamic City." Lesoon’s fieldwork will be done in Morocco, Egypt, and Turkey.

“Courtney’s project presents an innovative idea that has not, to my knowledge, been investigated before,” says Nasser Rabbat, professor and director of the MIT Aga Khan Program. “How did the emergence and evolution of a particularly Islamic learning system affect the development of the city in the early Islamic period? Her work enriches the thinking about premodern urbanism and education everywhere by theorizing the intricate relationship between traveling, learning, and the city.”

“I’ll be working in different manuscripts collections in Morocco, Egypt, and Turkey to investigate where and how scholars were learning inside of the early Islamic city before the formal institutionalization of higher education,” says Lesoon. “I’m interested in how learning — as a set of social practices — informed urban life. My project speaks to two different fields; Islamic urbanism and Islamic intellectual history. I’m really excited about my time on Fulbright-Hays; it will be a really fruitful time for my research and writing.”

Before arriving at MIT, Lesoon worked as a research assistant in the Art of the Middle East Department at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Recently, she was awarded the 2021 Margaret B. Ševčenko Prize for “the best unpublished essay written by a junior scholar” for her paper “The Sphero-conical as Apothecary Vessel: An Argument for Dedicated Use.” Lesoon earned her MA from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where her thesis investigated an 18th-century “Damascus Room” and its acquisition as a collected interior in the United States.

Lizzie Yarina

Yarina is a doctoral candidate in the MIT Department of Urban Studies and Planning (DUSP) and a research fellow at the MIT Norman B. Leventhal Center for Advanced Urbanism. She is presently co-editing a volume on the relationship between climate models and the built environment with a multidisciplinary team of editors and contributors. Yarina was a research scientist at the MIT Urban Risk Lab, where she was part of a team examining alternatives to the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s post-disaster housing systems; she also conducted research on disaster preparedness in Japan. Her award supports her doctoral research under the title "Modeling the Mekong: Climate Adaptation Imaginaries in Delta Regions," which will include fieldwork in Vietnam, the Netherlands, Thailand, and Cambodia.

“Lizzie’s research brings together three dimensions critical to global well-being and sustainability: adapting to the inevitability of changing ecosystems wrought by the climate crisis; questioning the equity, appropriateness, and relationality of adaptation planning models spanning the global North and the global South; and understanding how to develop durable and just climate futures,” says Christopher Zegras, professor of mobility and urban planning and department head for DUSP. “Her work will be an important contribution toward the long-term health of our planet and of communities working to justly adapt to climate change.”

Previously, Yarina was awarded a U.S. Scholarship Fulbright to New Zealand to research spatial mapping and policy implications of Pacific Islander migration to New Zealand.

“My dissertation project looks at climate adaptation planning in delta regions,” she says. “My focus is on Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta, but I’m also looking at how models that are used in delta adaptation planning move between different deltas, including the Netherlands Rhine Delta and the Mississippi Delta.”

Working on her masters at MIT, Yarina had a teaching fellowship in Singapore, where she conducted research on climate adaptation plans in four major cities in Southeast Asia.

“Through that process I learned about the role of Dutch experts and Dutch models in shaping how climate adaptation planning was taking place in Southeast Asia,” she says. “This project expands on that work from looking at a single city to examining a regional plan at the scale of a delta.”

Yarina holds a joint masters in architecture and masters of city planning from MIT, and a BS in architecture from the University of Michigan.

Source: Courtney Lesoon and Elizabeth Yarina win Fulbright-Hays Scholarships

An Emoji Activist Envisions a World Beyond Words

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In a comic short film directed by Dan Rosen, an activist embraces emoji-based language in a fight against literacy.

Source: An Emoji Activist Envisions a World Beyond Words